Med in Small Doses - Neurodevelopment Disorders


This is part of the Med in Small Doses series, which aims to give you a snapshot of a disease or disorder. For information about the series, or common abbreviations click here.

This is a quick overview of some of the more common neuro-developmental disorders medical students should be aware about. There are many causes for neuro-developmental disorders, but the vast majority can be split up into the following categories;
  1. Deprivation
  2. Genetic disorders
  3. Immune dysfunction
  4. Infectious diseases
  5. Metabolic disorders
  6. Nutrition
  7. Trauma
  8. Toxic and environmental factors

Cerebral Palsy: non-progressive neuro-motor deficit. The brain lesions of cerebral palsy occur from the foetal - 3 years. 30-50% have mental retardation. 2-2.5/1000 births. Multidisciplinary approach to treatment/management. Botulinum toxin type A is the most commonly used drug for Cerebral Palsy with spasticity.

Living with Cerebral Palsy

Posterior Fossa Abnormalities: Dandy-Walker Malformation, Chiari I Malformation, Chiari II (Arnold-Chiari) Malformation.

Cordal Abnormalities: Hydromyelia (expansion of spinal cord central canal) Syringomyelia (cavity in inner portion of spinal cord)

Neural tube defects: failure to close/reopening

Forebrain Anomalies

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