Clinical Skills

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Clinical Examination

Performing a Cardiovascular Clinical Exam
Cardiovascular exams are used in conjunction with the appropriate history taking to ascertain the likelihood of a cardiovascular disease (e.g. congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, infective endocarditis and so on).

Performing a Respiratory Clinical Exam
Respiratory exams are used in conjunction with the appropriate history taking to ascertain the likelihood of a respiratory disease (e.g. upper respiratory tract infection, asthma, pneumothorax, pulmonary embolism and so on).



How to perform a Gastrointestinal Clinical Exam
Gastrointestinal or Abdominal examination is used in combination with suitable history taking to determine the likely disease process (e.g. hepatitis, gastroenteritis, appendicitis and so on).




An Introduction to the Musculoskeletal Clinical Exam
Musculoskeletal Clinical Exams are used in conjunction with the appropriate history taking to ascertain the likelihood of a disorder within the bone or muscles structures. The two main categories into which these disorders can be split into are Disease and Trauma.

Clinical Examination of the Spine
The Spine (Vertebral Column) serves a number of purposes (protection, muscle and ligament attachment, haematopoiesis and so on) and consequently has a range of associated pathologies. Musculoskeletal examination of the spine focuses on determining diseases and disorders that specifically effect that system in relation to the spine.

How to perform a Neurological Clinical Exam
Another important tool in a clinician's toolset. Neurological Clinical Exams are used in a variety of settings from the GP Clinic to in the Intensive Care Unit. This will take you through some basic anatomy, examination of the upper & lower limbs, and examination of the cranial nerves.


How to perform a Clinical Eye Exam
The eye allows us to observe the world around us, but it can also provide clinician's a window into a person's health. Often neglected and left to those dreaming of working as an Ophthalmologist, students and junior doctors alike miss out on a valuable source of information. Here the basics of the Clinical Eye Examination are introduced including reference to Dr John L Colvin and Dr Joseph A Reich's 35 Golden Rules of Eye Care.


History Taking

A Guide to taking a Psychiatric History
There are some areas like Psychiatry, where taking a good and thorough history can be more of a challenge for a medical student. The purpose of taking a Psychiatric History can split into three main things; diagnostic, to gain a biopsychosocial understanding of the patient’s problem, and therapeutic/psycho-educational.This guide sets out a basic structure by which these goals can be achieved.


Presentation Skills



Clinical Skills
A Quick Guide to ECG
ECG is a valuable tool in a clinician’s diagnostic toolset, however for some it’s just not easy to pick up. Most individuals skilled in ECG have achieved proficiency through practice and exposure, as interpreting ECG in the long term is a matter of pattern recognition. This post hopes to bring things back to basics.


A Quick Guide to Chest X-Ray Interpretation
Chest X-Rays (CXR) are routine investigation in clinical practice and consequently it is important for medical students and clinician’s alike to know how to interpret them. With time and practice, interpreting CXRs will become easier, but first you have to find an approach that works for you. This Guide provides you with basics and a number of approaches to help you get started.

The essentials of Basic Life Support
Basic Life Support forms a foundation level of care for treating patients with life-threatening illnesses or injuries, until the appropriate medical care can be provided. This post will run you through DRSABCD and more.


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